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Candidate of Sciences

The Candidate of Sciences degree is a first post-graduate [scientific degree] in many former [Eastern Bloc] countries, which is awarded for original research that constitutes a significant contribution to a scientific field. The degree was first introduced in the [USSR] on January 13, 1934, by a decision of the [Council of People's Commissars of the USSR] . It corresponds to the [Doctor of Philosophy] degree (Ph.D.) in the [USA] , the [United Kingdom] and other countries.

The highest attainable degree, one level higher than the Candidate of Sciences, is the [Doktor nauk] , which is roughly analogous to the [Doctor of Science] degree.

Procedure for attaining the degree
The work on a [dissertation] is commonly carried out during a [postgraduate] study period called aspirantura . It is performed either within an educational institution (such as a [university] ) or a scientific research institution (such as an institute of the [Russian Academy of Sciences] network). It can also be carried out without a direct connection to the academy. In exceptional cases, the Candidate of Sciences degree may be awarded on the basis of published scientific works.

A necessary prerequisite is passing an examination called "candidate minimum". In the Soviet Union, the candidate minimum included exams in the specialty field of the "dissertant", in a foreign language of his/her choice and in [Scientific Communism] . In [post-Soviet Russia] and other post-Soviet states, the latter examination was replaced by the one in [Philosophy] , and in Russia recently in [History of science] ; in [Ukraine] it is still Philosophy.

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