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, is a [province] located in the northwest of the [People's Republic of China] . It lies between [Qinghai] , [Inner Mongolia] , and the [Huangtu] plateaus, and borders [Mongolia] to the north and [Xinjiang] to the west. The [Yellow River] passes the southern part of the province. It has a population of nearly 31 million (2009) and has a large concentration of [Hui Chinese] . The capital of the province is [Lanzhou] , located in the southeast part of Gansu. Gansu is abbreviated Gan (甘) or Long (陇/隴), and is also known as Long West or Long Right, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu.

Gansu is a [compound name] first used in [Song Dynasty] [China] , of two [Sui] and [Tang Dynasty] [prefecture] s (州): Gan (around [Zhangye] ) and Su (around [Jiuquan] ).
In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to a number of [Neolithic] cultures. The [Dadiwan culture] , from where numerous archaeologically significant [artifact] s have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC . The [Majiayao culture] (馬家窯文化) and part of the [Qijia culture] (齊家文化) also took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively.

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