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Henri Poincaré

** Jules Henri Poincaré ** (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) , was a French [mathematician] , theoretical [physicist] , and a [philosopher of science] . Poincaré is often described as a [polymath] , and in mathematics as * The Last Universalist * , since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.

As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to [pure] and [applied mathematics] , [mathematical physics] , and [celestial mechanics] . He was responsible for formulating the [Poincaré conjecture] , one of the most famous problems in mathematics. In his research on the [three-body problem] , Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern [chaos theory] . He is considered to be one of the founders of the field of [topology] .

Poincaré introduced the modern [principle of relativity] and was the first to present the [Lorentz transformations] in their modern symmetrical form. Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Lorentz in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of [Maxwell's equations] , an important step in the formulation of the theory of [special relativity] .

The [Poincaré group] used in physics and mathematics was named after him.

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