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Logic

** Logic ** , (from the Greek * λογικός * logikos) is the study of [reasoning] . Logic is used in most intellectual activity, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of [philosophy] , [mathematics] , and [computer science] . Logic examines general forms which [argument] s may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. It is one kind of [critical thinking] . In philosophy, the study of logic falls in the area of [epistemology] , which asks: "How do we know what we know?" In mathematics, it is the study of valid [inference] s within some [formal language] .

Logic has origins in several ancient civilizations, including [ancient India] , [China] and [Greece] . Logic was established as a discipline by [Aristotle] , who established its fundamental place in [philosophy] . The study of logic is part of the classical [trivium] .

[Averroes] defined logic as "the tool for distinguishing between the true and the false"; [Richard Whately] , '"the Science, as well as the Art, of reasoning"; and [Frege] , "the science of the most general laws of truth". The article [Definitions of logic] provides citations for these and other definitions.

Logic is often divided into two parts, [inductive reasoning] and [deductive reasoning] . The first is drawing general conclusions from specific examples, the second drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms. A similar dichotomy, used by Aristotle, is [analysis] and [synthesis] . Here the first takes an object of study and examines its component parts, the second considers how parts can be combined to form a whole.

Logic is also studied in [argumentation theory] .

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