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Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including [natural science] , [engineering] , [medicine] , and the [social sciences] . [Applied mathematics] , the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as [statistics] and [game theory] . Mathematicians also engage in [pure mathematics] , or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind, although practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.

The word "mathematics" comes from the [Greek] μάθημα ( máthēma ), which means learning , study , science , and additionally came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study", even in Classical times. Its adjective is ( mathēmatikós ), related to learning , or studious , which likewise further came to mean mathematical . In particular, ( mathēmatikḗ tékhnē ), , meant the mathematical art .

The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form (and the less commonly used singular derivative ), goes back to the Latin neuter plural ( [Cicero] ), based on the Greek plural , used by [Aristotle] , and meaning roughly "all things mathematical"; although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun mathematics anew, after the pattern of [physics] and [metaphysics] , which were inherited from the Greek. In English, the noun mathematics takes singular verb forms. It is often shortened to maths or, in English-speaking North America, math .


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