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Mongolia

Mongolia is a [landlocked] [country] in [East] and [Central Asia] . It borders [Russia] to the north and the [People's Republic of China] to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with [Kazakhstan] , its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. [Ulan Bator] , the [capital] and largest city, is home to about 38% of the population. Mongolia's [political system] is a [parliamentary republic] .

The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various [nomadic empires] , including the [Xiongnu] , the [Xianbei] , the [Rouran] , the [Gökturks] , and others. The [Mongol Empire] was founded by [Genghis Khan] in 1206. After the collapse of the [Yuan Dynasty] , the Mongols returned to their earlier patterns. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of [Tibetan Buddhism] . At the end of the 17th century, most of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the [Qing Dynasty] . During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de-facto independence from the [Republic of China] , and until 1945 to gain international recognition.

As a consequence, it came under strong [Russia] n and [Soviet] influence: In 1924, the [Mongolian People's Republic] was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as Soviet politics of the time. After the [breakdown of communist regimes in Eastern Europe] in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own [Democratic Revolution] in early 1990, which led to a [multi-party system] , a new constitution in 1992, and the (rather rough) transition to a [market economy] .

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