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Pythagoras (c.570-c.495 BC) has commonly been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean theorem. Well-known figures in Greek mathematics also include Euclid, Archimedes, and Thales.

The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series of [abstractions] , or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction, which is shared by many animals, was probably that of [number] s: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.

In addition to recognizing how to [count] physical objects, [prehistoric] peoples also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, [season] s, years. [Elementary arithmetic] ( [addition] , [subtraction] , [multiplication] and [division] ) naturally followed.

Further steps needed [writing] or some other system for recording numbers such as [tallies] or the knotted strings called [quipu] used by the [Inca] to store numerical data. [Numeral system] s have been many and diverse, with the first known written numerals created by [Egyptians] in [Middle Kingdom] texts such as the [Rhind Mathematical Papyrus] .

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