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Pinyin

Pinyin ( [Simplified] / [Traditional Chinese] : 拼音 ), or more formally Hanyu Pinyin (汉语拼音 / 漢語拼音), is currently the most commonly used [romanization] system for [Standard Mandarin] . Hànyǔ (汉语 / 漢語) means the [Chinese language] , and Pīnyīn (拼音) means " [phonetics] ", or more literally, "spelling sound" or "spelled sound". The system is now used in [mainland China] , [Hong Kong] , [Macau] , parts of [Taiwan] , [Malaysia] and [Singapore] to teach [Mandarin Chinese] and internationally to teach Mandarin as a second language. It is also often used to spell Chinese names in foreign publications and can be used to enter [Chinese character] s ( hanzi ) on computers and cellphones.

The romanization system was developed by a government committee in the [People's Republic of China] (PRC), and approved by the Chinese government on February 11, 1958. The [International Organization for Standardization] adopted pinyin as the international standard in 1982, and since then it has been adopted by many other organizations. This romanization system also became the national standard in the [Republic of China] (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan) on January 1, 2009.

History
In 1954, the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (PRC) created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language. This committee developed Hanyu pinyin based upon several preexisting systems: ( [Gwoyeu Romatzyh] of 1928, [Latinxua Sin Wenz] of 1931, and the [diacritic markings] from [zhuyin] ) .Zou Minglang and Sun Hongkai, Language Policy In The People's Republic Of China: Theory And Practice Since 1949 , 2004, p. 23 The main force behind pinyin was [Zhou Youguang] .

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