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Police brutality

Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially also in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a [police officer] . It is in some instances triggered by " [contempt of cop] ", i.e., perceived disrespect towards police officers.

Widespread police brutality exists in many countries, even those that prosecute it. Police brutality is one of several forms of [police misconduct] , which include [false arrest] , [intimidation] , [racial profiling] , [political repression] , [surveillance abuse] , [sexual abuse] , and [police corruption] .

Throughout history, efforts to police societies have been marred by brutality to some degree. In the ancient world, policing entities actively cultivated an atmosphere of terror, and abusive treatment was used to achieve more efficient control of the population.

The origin of modern policing based on the authority of the [nation state] is commonly traced back to developments in seventeenth and eighteenth century [France] , with modern police departments being established in most nations by the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (see [Police] - History section). Cases of police brutality appear to have been frequent then, with "the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks.". Large-scale incidents of brutality were associated with labor [strikes] , such as the [Great Railroad Strike of 1877] , the [Pullman Strike] of 1894, the [Lawrence textile strike] of 1912, the [Ludlow massacre] of 1914, the [Steel strike of 1919] , and the [Hanapepe massacre] of 1924.

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