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A republic is a form of government in which the citizens choose their leaders and the people (or at least a part of its people) have an impact on its government. The word "republic" is derived from the Latin phrase [res publica] , which can be translated as "a public affair".

Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. The most common definition of a republic is a state without a monarch. In republics such as the [United States] and [France] the executive is legitimated both by a [constitution] and by popular [suffrage] . In the United States, [James Madison] defined republic in terms of [representative democracy] as opposed to [direct democracy] , and this usage is still employed by many viewing themselves as "republicans". In modern [political science] , republicanism refers to a specific ideology that is based on [civic virtue] and is considered distinct from ideologies such as [liberalism] .

Most often a republic is a [sovereign] country, but there are also [subnational entities] that are referred to as republics, or which have governments that are described as "republican" in nature. For instance, [Article IV] of the [Constitution of the United States] "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government." The [Soviet Union] was a single nation composed of distinct and legally sovereign [Soviet Socialist Republic] s.

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