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Semi-presidential system

The semi-presidential system , also known as the presidential-parliamentary system , or premier-presidential system , is a [system of government] in which a [president] and a [prime minister] are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the [state] . It differs from a [parliamentary republic] in that it has a popularly elected [head of state] who is more than a purely ceremonial [figurehead] , and from the [presidential system] in that the [cabinet] , although named by the president, is [responsible] to the [legislature] , which may force the cabinet to resign through a [motion of no confidence] .

The term was first coined in a 1978 work by political scientist [Maurice Duverger] to describe the [French Fifth Republic] , which he dubbed a régime semi-présidentiel .

Division of powers

How the powers are divided between president and prime minister can vary greatly between countries. In France, for example, in case of [cohabitation] when the president and the prime minister come from opposing parties, the president is responsible for [foreign policy] and the prime minister for [domestic policy] . In this case, the division of powers between the [prime minister] and the [president] is not explicitly stated in the constitution, but has evolved as a [political convention] . In [Finland] , by contrast, this particular aspect of the separation of powers is explicitly stated in the [constitution] : "foreign policy is led by the president in cooperation with the cabinet".


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