What is hydroelectric power generation?
We know that hydroelectric plants take advantage of water currents’ power, pushing the generator’s turbines to generate electricity. In a thermal power plant, through the burning of fuel, it converts the water in the boiler into steam, then takes advantage of the steam’s power, pulling the generator to generate electricity. Conventional generators all take advantage of the coil’s rotation relative to the magnetic field. Its two sides constantly cut the magnetic force line, in the coil will generate inductive current. Hydrodynamic generators are a way of using charged fluids (ionized gas or liquid metals) to spray into the magnetic field at extremely high speeds, taking advantage of the effects generated by magnetic fields on charged fluids. , through which electricity is generated.
Let’s get acquainted with the electrically charged fluid in hydrodynamic electricity generation first. They are formed through fuel heating, inert gas, and alkali metal vapors. At a temperature of several thousand degrees Celsius, the motions of atoms and electrons in these substances are both very intense. Some electrons can even escape the binding of the atomic nucleus. These substances turn into a mixture of free electrons, lost ions, and atomic nuclei. That is plasma. Spray the plasma at ultrasonic speed into a pipe exposed to a strong magnetic field. High-speed particles with positive and negative charges in the plasma, affected by the Lorentz force in the magnetic field, deflect the poles. So there is a voltage generated between the poles. Using wires to connect that voltage to the circuit is usable.
The best part about this generation method is that it can greatly improve the power generation efficiency. According to conventional heat generation, of the energy that must be released by burning fuel, only 20% is converted to electricity. Besides, it was calculated theoretically that thermal power generation’s efficiency as high as 40% is already reaching the final limit. Hydrodynamic power generation can also use the exhaust gas generated from the pipeline of this generation to run another turbine generator, forming a power generation complex. The efficiency of this type can reach up to 50%. If some technical problems are solved well, the electricity generation efficiency can be expected to improve one step further, to over 60%.
Another advantage of this generation is that it generates less environmental pollution. In the flue gas generated when fuel is burned in a thermal power plant, there is a large amount of sulfur dioxide. It is an important cause of air pollution. Taking advantage of electricity generation from hydrodynamics not only makes the fuel burn more fully at high temperatures, but some of the additive materials it uses can also mix with sulfur, produce potassium sulfate, and be recovered using. That avoids the direct release of sulfur into the air, causing environmental pollution.
When using hydrodynamic electricity generation, just increasing the charged fluid’s injection rate, increasing the magnetic field strength can improve the power of the generator. Using high-energy fuel, and combining with a high-speed starter, can bring the generator’s capacity up to 10 million kW, enough to satisfy the need for high-capacity electricity. China, the US, India, Australia, and the European Community are all actively researching in this regard.