Why can energy-saving lamps save electricity?
Tube light is more energy-efficient than a filament lamp, as it emits a cold light. It doesn’t have to have as much electricity converted to heat as a filament, wasted in vain. So the luminous efficiency of neon lamps is equivalent to four times that of incandescent lamps. But people still think about how to improve the light output of tube lights even more.
Electric light source scientists pay attention to the relationship between tube lights’ luminous efficiency with fluorescent material spread on the inside of the tube. In the early days, tube lamps used a mixture of zinc beryl silicate, magnesium tungsten, cadmium borate as the fluorescent agent. The luminous efficiency was 40 lumens/oat (lm / W; lumen was the light flux unit). Later, using potassium half sulfate as a fluorescent agent, the luminous efficiency was enhanced to 60 lm / W.
In the early ’80s of the twentieth century, the rare earth tri-color tube light was researched and manufactured by Philip of the Netherlands, making tube lamps go a long way in terms of energy saving. This type of lamp, called a new third-generation light source, is also known as an electronic energy-saving lamp.
It saves electricity thanks to two major “surgeries” that scientists have performed on the lamp’s light-emitting system. The first “surgery” is reforming fluorescent powder, the substance on which tube lights are made to light. This new type of tube lamp uses fluorescent powders caused by rare earth elements such as europium oxide, ytri oxide, etc. mix out. In turn, these substances can produce a mixture of rare-earth with the original three-color sheen: red, blue, and indigo. If mixing them in a certain ratio, then spray on the inside of the tube, radiation can emit white light close to the spectrum’s natural light after electric stimulation. Its luminous efficiency is over 85 lm / W, up to 40% higher than normal tube lights.
In finding ways to improve the fluorescence, at the same time, the scientists discovered that the power frequency of the tube light ballasts was also closely related to the luminous efficiency. If the power supply frequency is raised from the usual 50 hec (Hz) to 10000 Hz, luminous efficiency can be as high as 20%. What a source of electricity savings worth exploring! However, the tube light ballast’s working power source is ordinary city electricity, the fixed frequency at 50 hec. In contrast, the iron core ballast that conventional tube lights use can only play a high role. The voltage in the circuit, but cannot modify the frequency in the circuit. So, scientists have to find a way to do a second “surgery” for the tube lamp, making a radical “revolution” on the ballast structure.
Through research and experiments, they finally successfully designed a completely innovative electronic inverter ballast. It is a high-frequency oscillating circuit made up of electronic components, which converts a 50 Hz ac power into a 30 – 50 kHz high voltage. This conversion method is called the electronic inverter transformer technique.
The new design of electronic inverter ballasts improves the original three-color fluorescent powder’s luminous efficiency by one step. It reduces the entire lamp’s weight by 80% by eliminating the core ballast. Iron consumes electricity by itself, so power is also saved. According to measurements and calculations, the iron core ballast used in conventional tube lights has a power consumption of 4 watts, while the electronic inverter ballast consumes only about 0.6 watts. Only this point alone has saved 3.4 oat power compared to before.
Through the application of two measures: using fluorescent powder with high luminous efficiency and electronic inverter ballasts, which makes the energy efficiency of energy-saving lamps greatly improved. An 11 oat tricolor electronic bulb is only 17% of a 60 oat incandescent lamp with the same luminance and only 65% of a 15 oat normal tube lamp of the same luminance. Original three-color electronic energy-saving lamp, in addition to energy saving, high efficiency, beautiful light color, the service life of the tube is up to 5000 hours. However, in addition to this type of lamp, many other energy saving lamps apply electronic inverter ballasts. Examples include electronic inverter high-pressure sodium lamps, low voltage halogen lamps, high-pressure tube lights, etc. Where a strong light source is required over a large area, energy-saving lamps can achieve the goal of saving a lot of power. If a small energy-saving lamp can go into every household, it will promote a greater energy-saving effect.