Why can the battery be recharged?
The small battery is like an electric store, can generate electricity. The battery takes advantage of the chemicals inside it to react, converting energy into electricity. A conventional dry battery can only convert the chemical energy it stores into electricity once, and when it is used up, it cannot be used again. As for the rechargeable battery (battery), although there is a type that does not look much different from a normal dry battery, recharging it can still be used, both convenient and practical when using up the power. How can the rechargeable battery be recharged and recharged? That has to do with its internal texture.
Conventional dry batteries have both anodes and a cathode. The anode is a coal bar with a copper cap, and the cathode is the zinc shell of the battery. During electrical discharge, zinc and glued electrolyte have a chemical reaction, generating an electric current. At the same time, zinc is gradually being consumed; the reactant also produced gradually accumulates. These will prevent the continuation of the chemical reaction, causing the discharged current to weaken. When the current is so weak that it can no longer be used, we say the battery is out of power. Although there have been people looking for ways to supplement and replace new chemicals in dry batteries, doing so takes a lot of effort, and the price is also quite high. So, usually, we throw the dry battery out of electricity into the designated garbage collection to avoid polluting the environment.
The electrode material and electrolyte used in rechargeable batteries are different from dry batteries. Nickel-cadmium batteries used in small household electrical products such as hearing aids, pocket radios, photographic flashlights, etc., are alkaline batteries. In nickel-cadmium batteries, each alternating cell is placed opposite each other on a foil, the anode plate, and the battery’s cathode plate. The anode plates connect to the top cover; the cathode plates connect again to the battery cover. The anode and cathode plates’ structure is almost the same, but the active substance inside is different. The active substance on the anode plate is nickel hydroxide, while on the cathode plate is a mixture of cadmium and iron. The battery’s negative and anodes are immersed in a battery case filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide in the membrane. There is a hard rubber separator between each anode and negative plate to prevent the anode and negative plates from touching each other. The shell used two layers of anti-explosion sealed. The outer shell is the cathode; the battery cover is positive.
When these batteries are discharged, the active substance on the anode plate converts to weak nickel hydroxide. The active substance on the cathode plate converts to cadmium hydroxide and generates an electric current. Then, the stored chemical energy of the battery will be converted into electricity. After the power has been used up, a nickel-cadmium battery charger can be used. The chemical reaction mentioned above proceeds to the opposite, i.e., a reversible chemical reaction occurs. As a result, the active substance on the anode and negative plates is restored to the original state, whereby the DC power is converted to battery chemistry and stored again. So nickel-cadmium batteries can be recharged and recharged, the number of recharges can reach more than 800 times.
Basic batteries in addition to nickel-cadmium batteries, also iron-nickel batteries, silver-zinc batteries, etc. They all use alkaline solutions as electrolytes. Another type of battery is an acid battery, such as a lead battery, which uses a liquid acid solution as an electrolyte, a lead oxide plate as an anode, and a porous lead as the cathode. Lead batteries are often used to start cars, trains, boats, etc., providing the electric current needed for the ignition systems of the combustion engines during starting. Acidic and alkaline batteries are both rechargeables. When discharging and recharging, they take advantage of reversible chemical reactions, performing the mutual conversion between chemistry and electricity.
As the oil reserves on Earth are gradually running out, the burning of fuels such as mazut, gasoline, gas, etc., also causes environmental pollution. There is an opinion: should use a rechargeable battery to directly supply the electricity that a car engine needs or not.
But, given the current situation, the rechargeable battery is not a “competitor” of fuels such as gasoline, etc. Only when the rechargeable battery increases the power reserve to a very large extent, slightly reduces self-weight, and lowers production costs will it be able to compare high and low capacity with other fuels. In the short term, scientists are exploring and researching one more step to develop the design of cars that do not need to burn fuel such as gasoline, etc., as soon as possible.