X-rays penetrate for human body
Sunlight, light, and fire are all light that the human eye can see, called visible light. There is also some light that the eye can not see. Although they can not be seen, using experimental methods can prove that they do indeed exist and have the nature of light. X-rays are one of them, commonly referred to as X-rays.
In 1895, German scientist Ronghen studied the electric discharge phenomenon in a vacuum and discovered the first X-rays. What’s the difference between X-rays and visible light?
Based on the long-term research results, scientists have summed up light’s nature: whatever light is an electromagnetic wave, but their wavelengths are different. Light with a wavelength among 400 – 760 nanometers (1 nanometer = 1 nm = 10-9 meters) is visible light in general; Light with a wavelength less than 400 nm, which is called ultraviolet light invisible. X-rays are light whose wavelengths are even shorter than ultraviolet rays (whose frequencies range from 3.1016 Hz to 3.1018 Hz), only about one-tenth of visible light wavelengths. It is also invisible light.
Light with different wavelengths has different abilities to penetrate objects. Visible light can only penetrate transparent objects such as crystals, glass, alcohol, kerosene, etc. X-rays can penetrate opaque objects such as paper, wood, the human body’s fibrous organization, etc.
Why can using X-rays through the human body can reveal the shadow of the bone on the fluorescent screen? It turns out that the X-ray’s ability to penetrate various types of objects is not the same for objects made up of relatively light elements, like muscles, etc. , when X-rays shine through, like the kind of visible light that passes through a transparent object, little is weakened. For objects made up of relatively heavy atoms, such as iron and lead, X-rays are impenetrable, almost entirely absorbed. Skeletons absorb X-rays 150 times more strongly than muscles. Therefore, when using X-rays shining through the human body, the black shadow of the bones is saved on the fluorescent screen. X-rays can penetrate the human body; in medicine, it is often used to examine the patient’s internal organs such as lungs, bones, stomach, intestines, etc.
Overexposure to X-rays will be detrimental to the body and can also develop radioactive diseases. Therefore, the medical staff who are responsible for the screening and X-rays of the hospital must wear aprons. Wearing hats, rubber gloves, lead crystal eyeglasses are to prevent X-rays from reaching the body parts, affecting health.