Predicting natural disasters such as hurricanes, storms, snowfalls, tornadoes (tornadoes), hail, droughts, and floods to guard against is the first and most important meteorological task science. To forecast weather change accurately, it is necessary to have measurement information on a large scale, even globally. For example, we usually report the daily weather, that is, based on measured results of air pressure, temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed, etc., through analysis and judgment to draw results.
Until now, the accuracy and timeliness of weather forecasts have not met countries’ economic development needs around the world. In this respect, on the one hand, because the movement of the atmosphere itself is extremely complex, the forecast is very difficult, on the other hand because the measured results are also limited, especially the data measured in the regions. Polar and seas in the southern hemisphere are extremely few. It is difficult for people from these sparse meteorological documents to assemble the laws of atmospheric changes fully.
To obtain global meteorological data, to improve this incomplete documentation, the World Meteorological Organization has outlined a master plan for international cooperation on a large scale. The largest is called the “Global Meteorological Research Plan.” “Global Atmospheric Experiment” is the first integrated global measurement plan of this project category. Its purpose is to focus on a comprehensive, global atmospheric metrology time.
The Earth is huge; the atmosphere is immense. It is not easy to know the face of it at the same time. So how will the “Global Weather Test” be conducted?
To know the atmosphere’s full surface, you must first go outside of the atmosphere to measure it. Therefore, the “Global Weather Experiment” and relying on ground-based stations also have to use many special measurement measures, the most important of which is the meteorological satellite.
During the experiment, two types of measuring satellites must be used. One type is called a geostationary satellite, consisting of five satellites distributed in evenly spaced distances above the equator 36,000 km from the ground. This type of satellite orbits the Earth for 24 hours, just like the rotation of the Earth. Looking up from Earth looks like they are fixed in the air, so they are called geostationary satellites. The measuring range of each satellite goes east-west 50 longitudes each direction, south-north each direction 50 degrees. Therefore, these five satellites distributed over equatorial space could measure a large area of 50 degrees on either side of the equator.
Another type of satellite, called polar orbit satellite, consists of two groups, at an altitude of 830 km and 1,000 km. Because its orbit around the Earth is passing through the Earth poles’ air, it is called a polar orbit satellite.
These two types of satellites measure during the day and at night, can use infrared radiation to measure key items and photograph clouds, and calculate the wind on the upper floors, observing the global cloud. , the distribution of ice, and indirectly measure the atmosphere, the distribution changes with height.
In the tropics, more than 300 balloons are placed at a certain height for measurement. It is a hot air balloon that always flies at a fixed height of 14 km, a hot air balloon with monitoring devices. On the southern hemisphere’s vast waters, there are 300 floating buoys used to measure the temperature and pressure of the sea surface. Besides, there are 50 specialized ships, hundreds of aircraft equipped with special machines to monitor. Thousands of flights and a large number of merchant ships at sea participated in additional monitoring. Most of the material is received by satellite, then transmitted to the ground station.
Thereby, we can see how closely the “global experimental observation system” is designed. There are satellites to observe down; in the middle, there are balloons, patrol aircraft, below sea boats, floating buoys evenly distributed over a large sea area, each floor is also closely arranged. Every place like that, we can know all the smallest changes in global meteorology.
During the global experiment, the volume of daily documents obtained is extremely massive, requiring a computer to process. In which most of the materials can be used for daily weather forecasting operations. All observed data finally focused on two conservation centers around the world, Archeweir of the US and Moscow of Russia, to provide for further research.
More than 140 countries worldwide participate in the “Global Weather Experiment”, which lasts for one year. This experimental study will significantly improve weather forecasts’ quality and efficiency and help us become more aware of the physical causes of climate change.