Why do scientists of many countries do not mind as far away as the ice-filled Antarctica, there is no human shadow of the Earth to measure meteorology? That is because before, people did not know anything about the Antarctic meteorology.
Since countries worldwide carried out the Antarctic meteorological observation. People had discovered many new things, changing the previous perception, especially when many “extreme” of the meteorology was calved from the Northern Hemisphere to the Antarctic.
According to the survey, 97% of the Antarctic region is covered with ice and snow. 90% of the ice on Earth is concentrated in Antarctica. As we know, when the ice melts into water, the water evaporates and turns into steam. The more water vapor in the air, the more humid. But from the observation results, the amount of water vapor in the Antarctic air is very small. Antarctica is the driest region on Earth. That is one of the achievements of Antarctic meteorological observations.
In Antarctica’s winter, there are often strong winds; the wind speed sometimes reaches 100 m / s, even stronger than the 12 to 2-3 times cyclone winds. This is rare in the Northern Hemisphere because the strongest wind speed in the cyclone center never exceeded 100 m / s. This great discovery is due to the conduct of meteorological observations in Antarctica.
It was previously thought that the world’s cold extreme was the Arctic or the Caribbean. But after Antarctic meteorological observations discovered, the world’s extreme cold is not in the Arctic, nor is it in the Caribbean, but the South Pole. In 1967 Norwegian scientists recorded the lowest extreme temperature near Antarctica at -94.5 ° C, which is the third result of Antarctic meteorological observation. What is more important: through meteorological observations, it is found that the air movement and weather change in Antarctica affects the Northern Hemisphere, even affect the global weather change.
The United States is located in the Northern Hemisphere. In the imagination of many, the cause of cold air currents in the United States comes from the Northern Hemisphere. For example, in winter, cold winds from the Arctic blow. In summer, whirlwinds that land on the mainland originates from the Pacific or Atlantic, spring rainstorms from temperate cyclones, and so on. Who would have expected the Northern Hemisphere’s weather to be related to the South Pole?
Some people believe that meteorological change in the Northern Hemisphere is due to strong winds in the Antarctic. The truth is not quite like that when strong winds in Antarctica from the Antarctic highlands overflow into the sea’s coastal areas because of the constant gravity generated by the Earth’s rotation, the wind direction changes, from south to north, from east-west towards the low latitudes that blow towards.
So how does the movement of the air in the Antarctic affect the Northern Hemisphere? Antarctica is the largest ice storage in the world, and the radiation decreases extremely markedly. Scientists have firmly grasped this key point to trace the source of the problem. Everyone knows the driving force causing climate change on Earth can be generalized into two words “fire” and “water.” The hot and cold sources cause the movement between the south and north poles of the air. Because the Earth’s heat is distributed very unbalanced, creating the air’s circulatory flow – the “gear system” of the Earth.
The region near the Sun shines’ equator strongly. The air temperature rises, the sea water evaporates through the medium that the air is the tropical wind that constantly carries heat to the two colder regions. In contrast, the cold air at the poles brings. Cold air is directed north or south, causing heat exchange. That is the simplest model of the air’s heat distribution cycle.
The Antarctic ice sheet creates cold air thanks to the “gear system” that affects the Northern Hemisphere. At times, the cold Antarctic gas exploded, the cold air that spilled thousands of kilometers poured into the South Pacific, crossing the equator, creating whirlwinds. The equatorial inter-tropical convergence belt in the Northwest Pacific is more active, thereby generating cyclones landing in China, the Philippines, Japan, etc.
Today in Antarctica, there are many meteorological observatories. Humans gradually reveal the mysterious curtain of the ice-filled Antarctic region. Antarctica appears unusually cold or warm today is considered one of the important information to change the global climate.