Are elementary particles no longer basic?
Over the past 2000 years, philosophers and natural scientists have pondered a problem: what would happen if we kept dividing an object? Is it possible to find the most fundamental kind of particle that makes matter?
Physicists first discovered that many objects were all made up of very small molecules and later discovered that they were made up of even smaller atoms. The atom also has a complex structure, centered on the atomic nucleus and electrons. The “temperament” of protons, neutrons and electrons are each different. Physicists call protons and neutrons hadrons (heavy particles), electrons leptons (light particles). They are all one family, collectively referred to as elementary particles.
Ever since Joseph John Thomson discovered the first elementary particle – the electron from the laboratory in 1897 until now, the number of elementary particle family members has increased to more than 300 types. It is possible to divide more than 300 members into three families: photon, lepton, hadron, of which nearly 300 types are belonging to hadron. Before the 60s of the twentieth century, many people thought that elementary particles were the most basic thing that made up matter. They have no size nor texture.
Nearly 20 years ago, while adjusting to that crowded family of elementary particles, physicists discovered a certain arrangement among hadrons, like elements in the periodic table of prime. The appearance of the law of the element cycle is because atoms have an internal structure. Thereby natural physicists arose a kind of idea: do elementary particles also have internal structure? Based on that clue, theoretical physicists hypothesize that the hadron is a system made up of three (or a pair) of more fundamental particles. They call these things more fundamental than these elementary particles, the quarks. What makes people excited is that based on such a simple hypothesis, it is possible to explain many of the experiments’ facts. Later, physicists used very high energy electron beams to bombard protons and neutrons, which, of course, found that quarks contained protons and neutrons.
In recent decades, the situation has progressed again. Physicists, in exchange for using neutrinos to bombard hadrons, have discovered something even more amazing. Experiments show that in hadrons, not only quarks, but there may also be a kind of matter called the gluon. In 1979, an experimental group of high-energy physics led by Professor Dinh Trieu Trung, a famous Chinese-American physicist, used the accelerator with the world’s highest energy at that time. in Hambourg, Germany) to search for new particles by smashing both positive and negative electrons together, while analyzing a phenomenon called “spouting” has taken a step forward to find evidence Experiment on the existence of gluon, it is very important to the world of science and technology.
Then, are quarks and gluons the most fundamental particles that makeup matter? This problem seems to have to be solved by future scientific experimental facts.