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# Are superconductors not completely conductors?

The noun conductive (electricity) is not strange to us. Every day, when we turn on the radio or television, the conductor is immediately visible, converting electrical signals into melodious music and beautiful pictures. Their internal structure determines the reason that conductors possess very good electrical conductivity. However, regardless of the conductor, the current path always generates resistance to the current. When a very strong current is passed through the wire then the wire heats up, which is the kind of resistance in the wire. Because of resistors’ existence, the energy of the current can not fail to divide a portion of the dissipation on the resistor, thereby making useful electricity wasted.

How does electric current flow in conductors? Is there a conductor that has no resistance? These are two issues that people are very concerned about.

It turns out that the movement of the current is caused by a special force – the electric force. When the current encounters the resistance, the speed of movement slows down. The electric field forces immediately “help out” to let the current pass through the resistance and run continuously in the wire. The source of this external electric force is the power source. If there is no resistance in the wire, the current movement requires the electric force’s push but can run forever. Such a conductor is called a fully conductive substance. The electric force has no “ground for martial arts” and no “body space” in the complete conductor. Because in the conductor there are no longer resistors, the charge once subjected to the force will run faster and faster, ultimately making the current in the conductor become larger and larger so that it can not be caused. In reality, this kind of situation could not have appeared. Therefore, in a conductor, it is completely impossible to exist as an electric force. Scientists have shown that this type of electric force also produces a time-varying magnetic field. There was absolutely no electric field in a conductor then it could not exist a time-varying magnetic field.

In 1911, Professor Onnes’s laboratory in the Netherlands, a great discovery surprised the research staff. They found that near a temperature of 4.2 K (about -269 ° C), the mercury’s resistance suddenly disappeared. It was later discovered, when the temperature was at 3.8 K (about -270 ° C), the resistance of tin was no longer available. They then called it a particular kind of conductive state, the superconducting state. Conductors exhibit superconductivity at very low temperatures i.e., superconductors.

Are superconductors completely conductive? Judging from the zero resistance characteristics, a superconductor is not different from a completely conductive substance. However, experimentally scientists have shown that superconductors have a very special kind of property. This type of property is called complete magnetism. This property has absolutely no conductors.

Bring a magnet with very strong magnetism close to the conductor; the conductor is easily attracted to the magnet. That is because a magnet influences the conductor, so it is also magnetic, called magnetization. However, when the magnet is brought close to the superconductor, the magnet suffers a huge drag. Suppose the superconductor is placed on the table surface. In that case, when the magnet comes close to the superconductor from above, the resistance against the magnet is so great that it can balance the magnet’s gravity, causing the magnet to hang above the superconductor. That is a magnetic suspension (or heavy non-contact superconductivity). The cause of that phenomenon is the superconductor, which is not magnetized. It has a very strong magnetic resistance (the superconductor that repels all of the flux).

In complete conductors, a magnetic field, once generated, it can not be increased or lost. But in superconductors, absolutely no magnetic field appears at all. Even if a magnetic field exists in a conductor, the magnetic field will be pushed all out of the superconductor when it turns into a superconductor. If a magnetic field is applied to the superconductor outside, the magnetic field can not enter the superconductor. Therefore, in terms of their anti-magnetic properties, superconductors are not complete conductors. It is a new state of conductor that exists at extremely low temperatures.

Taking advantage of the effect of superconductors’ magnetic resistance, it is now possible to build a train that hangs from magnetism. This train runs above the track; there is no friction between the track and the wheel like a conventional train; the train speed can be very high.

James Smith
I used to look up at the sky when I was a child and wonder what's in those stars. Growing up, when I had the opportunity to contact the source of human knowledge, I had more knowledge about the universe, the natural world, and created laws. Being the founder of Wikiwap is where I can share my understanding of the world around me in a simple way that readers can access knowledge like a child. You and I are parts of the world; life will always be beautiful.

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