Lightning formed like?
Lightning always goes with thunder because lightning leads to thunder. On our Earth, more than 100 lightning strikes occur every second. As early as 1752, American scientist Franklin used his famous kite-flying experiment to prove lightning was the phenomenon of electrical discharge in the atmosphere. But so far, scientists have not been able to clarify why clouds carry electricity and lightning completely.
We have only obtained part of the answer related to lightning.
Humans still do not know how thunderstorms accumulate electricity in such a large amount. But scientists know for sure the existence of those charges. The balloons carry a tracking device that flies into the cloud layer, detecting the cloud’s top to be positively charged, the middle part and the bottom of the cloud is negatively charged. The vast majority of scientists think that this type of electrical distribution results from the interaction between ice chips and water droplets in the clouds. The ice has a negative charge. The water that holds on it is positively charged; strong air currents go up in the thunderstorm, bringing the positively charged water particles to the top of the cloud layer, immediately forming charge distribution on the positive and negative in the thunder cloud.
When a large amount of charge has been accumulated in the cloud, the electric field immediately becomes strong enough, which makes the air with very good electrical insulation properties and suddenly turns into a good conductor. The electron immediately goes from the negatively charged cloud to the positively charged cloud, which looks like sparks. At that time, a lightning strike could be seen. Lightning can be divided into three categories: cloud discharges, cloud-to-cloud discharges, and cloud-ground discharges. The former two are collectively called cloud clay; the third is called clay. Due to the relationship between clay and human activities, the clay people study the most is also clay.
Ground lightning is the intense discharge of electrical sparks generated between the bottom of a cloud layer and the ground. As the thundercloud approaches the ground, the ground produces a positive charge opposite to the charge and cloud that is carrying, producing a strong electric field. As mentioned above, when the electric field is strong enough, it will pierce the air, creating an ionic passage to turn into a good conductor.
Negative changes in the lower part of the cloud follow the ionic passage path because they always choose the path with the smallest resistance. So in the process of moving, the negative charge can immediately change direction. That is the reason why the lightning bends that we often see. When going to the ground about 10 m, the positive charge on the ground is sucked in the ion path just set up, rushing into the cloud, accompanied by extremely bright luminescence, which is lightning our eyes see. Negative charges in the cloud layer and positive charges on the ground go back and forth like that once, giving birth to an electrical discharge, called a lightning strike. The lightning we see lasts for less than a second and includes several lightning strikes, some more than ten times more.
The current of lightning can be as high as 100 thousand amps. As the air temperature in the lightning path increases to 20,000 ° C, the air expands rapidly, creating enormous pressure. The spread of pressure formed the thunder we hear. The sound transmission speed is more than 300 m / s, while the light is one million times faster. So, based on the period between seeing lightning and hearing thunder, it can be very easy to calculate the lightning distance.
Soil often happens where objects protrude above the ground, so you should not go to rain under big trees in stormy weather. The field is not deserted. Big trees are most vulnerable to lightning; also, Sitting indoors or in low-lying areas is relatively safe. Also, should not swim in the lake or near ponds, because water is a good conductor, if hit by lightning, the consequences are unpredictable.